The UK’s 3.7 million hectares of upland heathland are of international importance for nature conservation: this habitat is confined to north-west Europe, especially the UK. It provides the basic resource for hill farming and for grouse shooting. The wild nature of upland heathland is a much-loved feature of the landscapes of Devon, Cornwall, Wales, the Pennines, Lake District and Scotland. In many places, upland heathland harbours a rich archaeological heritage.